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Hydrogen from Waste: Challenges, Government Actions, and Technologies

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Written by Zoltan Kish, Ph.D., Quasar ScienceTech

Many countries have taken an early lead in the hydrogen economy development. Canada can play an important role in sustainable economic development based on hydrogen. The global hydrogen market size was valued at USD 117.49 billion in 2019. Hydrogen has re-emerged as an exciting and potential long-term way to address climate change and air quality while creating opportunities for the industry to grow. According to the Goldman Sachs estimate, the Green Hydrogen market could be worth €10 trillion ($11.7 trillion) by 2050, split between Asia, the U.S. and Europe. The recently proposed Hydrogen Strategy for Canada and Ontario Low-Carbon Hydrogen Strategy lays out an ambitious framework for actions that will cement hydrogen as a tool to achieve a speedy economic recovery from the devastating COVID-19 impact, while also helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions and position Canada as a global, industrial leader of clean renewable fuels. Launching a hydrogen strategy has the potential to inspire other cleantech industries and further develop a sustainable and knowledge-based economy in Canada.

The increasing application of hydrogen is anticipated in the following sectors: industry, transportation, power and chemical production, building and communities. Hydrogen is produced in various ways, such as natural gas steam reformation and pyrolysis, water electrolysis, coal and biomass gasification. Whereas, currently, natural gas is the primary source of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. Depending on the method of production, hydrogen has the potential to be low-carbon, which can help decarbonize our economy.

In addition to the conventional way of hydrogen production, low-carbon hydrogen can be produced from waste using advanced waste conversion technologies.

The Waste Challenge

Hydrogen from Waste

The increasing amount of waste is one of the most challenging problems facing the World. Around the World, 2.12 billion tons of garbage every year is produced. Contaminated and mixed waste products (e.g., plastics, paper, MSW, industrial and medical waste) are challenging to recycle in the traditional way – mechanical/physical processing. Especially, traditional plastic waste recycling has difficulties and limitations. Mechanical sorting is not effective for mixed plastic waste. Thousands of different types of plastic are manufactured by combinations of different resin types, dyes, and additives. Even carefully selected plastic materials can only be recycled limited times into similar products since it degrades every time after reheating. Therefore, most plastic products are downcycled into items of reduced value, such as textiles, toys or even construction materials, and eventually, end up in landfills and water resources creating tremendous environmental problems. The recent study – Economic Study of the Canadian Plastic Industry, Markets and Waste concludes by Environment Canada and Climate Change (ECCC) that landfilling 87% of plastic waste represents a CA$7.8 billion lost opportunity. By 2030, it is estimated that Canada’s lost opportunity related to unrecovered plastics could rise to CA$11.1 billion, under a business-as-usual scenario following the same end uses and value recovery performance as the current baseline.

Without effective recycling, most of the waste is sent to landfills and the energy in waste is essentially lost, producing mountains of trash, emitting harmful pollutants into our air, water and soil and creating enormous environmental problems. In landfills, the biodegradable components of waste decompose and emit methane – a greenhouse gas, which is more harmful than CO2. Landfills release many smog and acid rain related components and persistent organic pollutants, from both natural processes and landfill fires. Landfill fires, earth movements, groundwater flows, and development all contribute to landfill leachate of toxic substances (e.g., mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium, organic toxins) to eventually seep and contaminate nearby ecosystems. Besides, we have an additional problem in Ontario. As Mike Chopowick, CEO at Ontario Waste Management Association, recently wrote in his article – Ontario’s garbage crisis is urgent, “Every bag of garbage we throw out brings us one step closer to running out of landfill space. Our landfill capacity deadline of 2032 will arrive even sooner — by 2028, just eight years away — should the U.S. government decide to close the border to Ontario’s garbage.” Currently, 30% of Ontario’s waste has been shipped by 100,000 semi-truck trailer loads travelling each year to Michigan creating a tremendous amount of pollution.

Canada and many other countries in the world are facing a waste management crisis. Waste accumulation problems are growing. In addition to current waste problems, the produced waste will be further increased in the health care, hospitality and food sectors due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This pandemic could be a wake-up call for waste handling and reduction. Regrettably, Canada and other G7 countries are planning to use waste-to-energy incineration as part of plastic pollution solutions. However, incineration is a very costly and inefficient way for waste conversion into energy and generating highly toxic and carcinogenic pollutants. The flue gas of the waste combustion is significantly diluted and increased in volume by the nitrogen content of the excess air use. The large volume of the flue gas is more difficult to clean and costly.

Fundamental Shifts

We need a fundamental shift in the way of produced waste handling. The circular economy is not only based on simply reusing waste products. The purpose of recycling is to redesign and convert waste into forms retaining as high-value as possible in a circular economy. There is a requirement for a new and innovative approach in the development of a solution for the waste management challenges, waste recycling, plastic waste pollution reduction and a working circular economy.

The environmental impact of waste can be minimized by applying proper waste management using advanced waste conversion technologies. Chemical recycling as waste recycling using effective waste conversion technology is essential for a working circular economy. Whereas, Chemical Recycling of waste can be defined as a chemical process converting waste materials into new usable products with desirable properties and composition for required applications. Garbage can be converted into high-value products using advanced and cost-effective waste conversion technologies. Perspectives of different waste conversion technologies are provided in the article – “Perspectives on Waste-to-Energy Technologies”. In a circular economy, chemical recycling based on effective waste conversion technologies can play a pivotal role in waste conversion into usable materials and clean energy.

The Government has recognized (e.g., Zero Plastic Waste: Canada’s actionsWaste-Free Ontario ActStrategy for a Waste-Free Ontario Building the Circular Economy and many other documents) that waste diversion from landfills, recovering valuable resources and greenhouse gas emission reduction can be achieved by incorporating chemical recycling and emerging technologies into waste management practices. However, without the Government’s support and endorsement for chemical recycling as part of the circular economy, municipalities and private sectors are not in a position to move forward with implementing waste conversion technologies based on chemical recycling. On the other hand, in 2019 Illinois and Ohio, like many other US states, had passed new laws making it easier to build chemical recycling facilities, regulating them as recycling operations rather than waste processing plants. The Canadian Government could also consider this new approach using Chemical Recycling in waste management as recycling operations.

Technology Solutions

In response to the waste accumulation problems, an innovative and cost-effective waste convection technology has been further developed after many years of testing at the pre-commercial waste conversion facility. The developed advanced clean technology is based on a steam gasification process in combination with a reliable scrubbing/cleaning system. The proposed waste steam gasification, as a chemical recycling process, satisfies the purpose of recycling to convert waste into forms retaining as high value as possible in a circular economy. The steam gasification technology represents a potential alternative to the traditional treatments of waste feedstocks.

During traditional gasification and incineration, the required heat is produced directly in the reaction chamber. As a result of the oxidation component of the traditional gasification systems, noxious oxides (e.g., nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides), furans and dioxins are generated during these processes. Furans and dioxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic pollutants even at a very low concentration. Additionally, the produced synthesis gas (syngas) will be significantly diluted by the oxidation process which includes the nitrogen content of the air and produced carbon dioxide and water vapour. Therefore, the heating value of syngas produced from the traditional gasification process is significantly reduced. The lower quality syngas fuel generated from partial oxidation gasification can be run in reciprocating engines, but generally cannot be used as a fuel for cleaner burning and more efficient gas turbines, due to its relatively low heating value. The hydrogen content of the produced syngas is significantly reduced as a result of the reaction with introduced oxygen to the gasification reactor. Additionally, traditional gasification of waste produces more carbon dioxide due to the carbon content of waste reaction with oxygen, and typically requires extensive and expensive waste feedstock pre-treatment and cleaning/scrubbing system.

On the other hand, the application of the steam gasification process for waste processing eliminates pollution created by incineration and traditional gasification processes. The waste steam gasification is a thermo-chemical process and is based on the waste materials reaction with steam without the participation of oxygen or air at elevated temperature. The main product of the reactions is syngas. The steam gasification technology represents a potential alternative for the traditional waste treatments to produce higher heating content syngas, which has a higher hydrogen concentration and lower carbon dioxide content than products produced by traditional gasification. The steam gasification process does not generate noxious oxides (nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides), furans and dioxins. The chemistry is different due to the high concentration of steam as a reactant and the total exclusion of air and, therefore, oxygen from the steam gasification process. Contaminates are easier to remove from the produced syngas because it is not diluted by excess air or nitrogen and products of combustion. Utilizing an indirectly heated kiln with an effective scrubbing/cleaning system, the waste steam gasification technology is a novel and unconventional waste conversion technology, which allows for robust operation of various heterogeneous waste feedstocks, such as plastics, MSW, biomass, used tires, sewage sludge, industrial and medical waste. The developed technology significantly reduces the requirements for pre-processing feedstock. The high quality of the produced syngas and residual waste heat can be used to power combined cycle gas turbines, reciprocating gas engines or potentially fuel cells for the generation of electricity and produce hydrogen from waste. Besides, because of the high hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the produced syngas, the technology can be coupled with a Gas-to-Liquids technology (e.g., based on the Fischer – Tropsch process) to produce higher-value liquid synthetic fuels and chemicals.

The steam gasification technology, as an innovative and cost-effective chemical recycling process of waste, is the most suitable for contaminated & mixed waste conversion into clean energy and sustainable products, such as hydrogen, electricity, liquid synthetic fuels, and chemicals. At the current stage of the market demand, the application of steam gasification for waste processing into hydrogen can provide a cost-effective solution for waste accumulation problems and diversion from landfills. The waste diversion from landfills and recycling into hydrogen can protect the environment from pollutions and save natural resources by incorporating chemical recycling based on the waste steam reformation technology into waste management practices. Furthermore, if the processing waste is renewable feedstocks (e.g., agricultural or forest waste), the produced hydrogen can be considered green and the process can be considered carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative if the produced CO2 is captured and utilized (e.g., in greenhouses). Hydrogen production from waste is a cost-effective solution for waste diversion from landfills and recycling into a high-value product. The green hydrogen can be a base feedstock for green chemical production, such as green ammonia.

The developed cost-effective waste steam gasification technology as a chemical recycling process can provide a comprehensive and innovative solution to the complex problems of waste management, hydrogen production, environment protection, depletion of natural resources, and moving towards a circular economy. The application of the cost-effective waste steam gasification technology has competitive advantages over currently used hydrogen production and waste management technologies. The low-carbon hydrogen produced from waste holds the potential to decarbonize many sectors of our economy, including resource extraction, freight, transportation, power generation, manufacturing, oil refinery, and the production of steel, chemicals and cement. The use of the advanced steam gasification technology as a cost-effective chemical recycling process provides an innovative waste management strategy to divert waste from landfills and water resources and produce clean energy and sustainable products. Chemical recycling based on the cost-effective steam gasification technology can provide a fundamental shift in the way of waste handling in a circular economy. Waste conversion into hydrogen could become a base of the hydrogen and circular economy.

With the Government’s support, the waste steam gasification technology can be brought to the market as an industrial waste processing plant recycling waste into high-value sustainable products, such as hydrogen, chemicals and clean energy. The hydrogen production from waste can create many highly skilled jobs in the CleanTech and the waste management sectors and opportunities to export Canadian technologies around the Globe. With the right approach, Canada can be a front-runner in leading sustainable waste management and circular and hydrogen economy developments.

About the Author

Dr. Zoltan Kish has a Ph.D. in Chemistry with over 25 years of diverse industrial and academic experience and contributed to more than 70 scientific publications. He has developed and managed complex research and development programs related to alternative/renewable energy, clean technologies, effective waste conversion into usable products, sustainability, and advanced materials applications, such as solar energy technology, ceramic engine & cutting tool components, materials processing, and electronics. Dr. Kish was the Director of Research & Development at two Canadian alternative energy companies where he focused on R&D and commercialization of advanced waste conversion technologies and reliable scrubbing/cleaning systems to produce clean energy and sustainable products. In response to global environmental challenges and market requirements for viable economic growth, he has established a consulting company – Quasar ScienceTech (www.quasarsciencetech.com) to develop advanced technologies and provide multidisciplinary science and technology consulting in the areas of Natural & Applied Sciences, Clean Technologies & Energy, Waste Conversion, Scrubbing Systems, Advanced Materials, Innovation, Technical Due Diligence, Environmental Protection, Climate Change Mitigation, Circular Economy and Sustainability.

 

Circular economy approach at Emerald Energy from Waste

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Written by John Nicholson, Navdeep Randev, and Anastasia Jagdeo

Circular Economy

There has been much discussion on the term “circular economy” and the need for individuals, organizations, and governments to think in terms of circular economy.  In essence, a circular economy is one in which waste is essentially eliminated.  Prior to the modern age, humans were part of the circular economy that exists in nature.

As we may have learned in high school science class, there are cycles in nature including those for carbon, water, and nitrogen.  The industrial revolution broke away from natural cycles and created a linear approach to materials and energy management – products were manufactured, served their useful purpose, and then disposed of in a landfill.  The circular economy approach attempts to create a circle again through the 3Rs and the 4th R.

In Europe and in other forward-thinking jurisdictions around the world, energy-from-waste is considered the Fourth “R” after the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle).  The fourth “R” represents the recovery of energy from waste.

Circular Economics applied in Waste Management

Since 1992, the Emerald Energy-from-Waste (EFW) facility has quietly and unassumingly been part of the 4th R – recovering the energy from municipal solid waste.  The facility, originally knowns as Peel Resource Recovery Inc. is situated in an industrial area in north Mississauga, Ontario.  In all of its years of operation, there has been nary an odour, noise, or other nuisance complaint formerly brought against the facility.  Visitors tend to be amazed when they tour the facility which ends at the emissions stack.  Their preconceived notion is that they would see smoke from the stack.  In fact, the emissions are invisible on a warm day.  On cold days, the visible emissions are water vapour.

For the first twenty years of its operation, the facility’s main source of waste was from the Region of Peel.  More recently, it has received waste from several municipalities as well as U-Pak Disposal Ltd., a related company.  The facility also specializes in disposing of special waste including contraband seized by various police departments and Canadian Border Services at nearby Pearson Airport.

The facility runs 24-hours a day, 7 day per week.  It has a total of five two-unit gasifiers/combustion modules that work in parallel to process 500 tonnes per day of solid waste.

The heat generated from the combustion of waste at the facility is used to turn water into steam.  Some the steam is piped to a neighbouring cardboard recycling facility to meet their process needs.  The remaining steam is used to generate about 10 MW of electricity.  The facility itself consumes about 2 MW and its sells the remainder to the local power utility.

Unfortunately, the electricity generated from the Emerald EFW is not considered renewable under Ontario rules and hence does not receive the premium pricing other forms of the renewable energy receive.  There are jurisdictions around the world where EFW is considered a renewable energy source and is priced at a premium.

The volume of waste coming into the facility is reduced by 90 percent through the EFW process and is in the form of either bottom ash or fly ash.  The bottom ash is disposed of in a landfill, although the facility has been and continues to look for other uses for it such as an additive to asphalt or in building materials.  The facility is working with McMaster University researchers on developing a high-value use for the bottom ash.

The fly ash, by regulation, is considered hazardous and is managed at a hazardous waste landfill.

Expansion Plans

The facility is currently in the planning stages of an expansion which would involve the addition of more combustion units and an upgrade of its air pollution control system.  The plans also include an alternative use of the energy recovered from the waste – the production of hydrogen fuel for the trucks that bring waste to the facility.

The facility is working with researchers at the University of Waterloo and a partner in the automotive industry to work out the details of hydrogen generation and use as a fuel for the trucks the off-load waste at the facility on a daily basis.  Preliminary economics and environmental analysis indicate that this is a much more effective use of the heat obtained from the EFW facility.

The Emerald EFW is a shining example of EFW done right in Canada.  It has been an underappreciated harbinger what can be accomplished at municipalities throughout the country.

Waste incineration: Why isn’t it mainstream in North America?

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Written by Sarah Welstead, Eco Waste Solutions

Somehow, Sweden makes it cool

The other day, an old friend of mine – who doesn’t really know much about what I do here at Eco Waste, or really even what Eco Waste does – posted a link to a piece in The Independent about how Sweden has gotten so good at turning its trash into energy that it now imports other countries’ trash just to keep its own facilities going.

My friend’s comment on the link was: “This is awesome! Why aren’t we doing that here?”

Those of us in the waste-to-energy field are, of course, well aware that Sweden has long been the benchmark for successful waste incineration.

While containerized waste incineration and thermal combustion technologies have been growing and improving over the past few years, they aren’t really a new idea: The first waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the United States opened in New York City in 1898, and technology developers have been trying commercialize gasification and pyrolysis facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW) since the 1970s.

So why would someone like my friend – who’s smart, well-educated, up-to-date on current events and with a background in the sciences – have such a gap in her knowledge of waste-to-energy, and completely unaware that environmentally-progressive countries lie Sweden have successfully left landfills behind when it comes to disposing of untreated waste?

Because the industry simply hasn’t done a good job of educating the public. And it’s time we got smarter about this.

It’s time we addressed the 3 core reasons for resistance to waste-to-energy.

Reason 1: Everyone freaks out when they hear the word ‘incineration’

Outside of the waste management industry – and sometimes within it, unfortunately – the word ‘incineration’ conjures apocalyptic images of town dumps burning out of control, or tire fires, or some guy burning his garbage in his backyard. And many people have heard of the health hazards associated with military ‘burn pits’ that have so often been the way military units deployed in remote locations have dealt with waste they can’t transport out. All of these things are, of course, bad.

But ‘incineration’ in a waste-to-energy or cleantech context is in fact a totally different thing. It’s still ‘combustion’, but it’s combustion that happens in highly-controlled environments, using super-high temperatures. Smoke and anything toxic is then filtered through hard-core scrubbers that ensure nothing dangerous gets into the air, and anything left over – inert bottom ash and more concentrated fly ash – are easy to dispose of, safely.

This isn’t vaporware; it’s not untried technology; it’s not even a shell game that doesn’t withstand scrutiny. High-temperature, advanced incineration which reduces waste by up to 90% with safe emissions has been around for years.

Reason 2: Waste-to-energy requires a long-term vision – and most politicians prefer immediacy

The primary competition for incineration-based waste-to-energy facilities in municipalities and communities when they’re considering a new waste management solution are landfills. Landfills are relatively easy to set up (though they do require proper construction), they’re familiar, and when compared with waste-to-energy facilities, they tend to cost less in the near term.

Incineration-based waste-to-energy facilities generally require a more significant up-front investment. WTE requires less land than a landfill, but does require money to build the incineration, containment and pollution-control facilities and associated technology.

For the first 10-15 years of operation, the landfill can look like the better investment: If it’s been set up correctly, and the community size stays within predicted growth levels, your landfill won’t cost a whole lot to run, manage or maintain – the ROI looks pretty good.

But at 15-20 years, landfills can start to look like a bad investment. What started as a plot of land in the middle of nowhere has now been surrounded by the city and is pulling property values down; it’s starting to near capacity so you need to find a whole new site for the garbage; and all that stuff accumulating in the ground has caused groundwater pollution problems that no one anticipated – and suddenly that ‘cheap’ solution is far more expensive than planned.

The cleantech waste-to-energy incineration facility, on the other hand, is still operating just fine. It doesn’t require more land, isn’t causing more pollution, and in fact is improving efficiency as it upgrades its technology.

Unfortunately, the people most able to effect a shift from landfills to WTE are politicians, who often control budgets and strategic initiatives for the communities in which they live. And when they need to be re-elected, they opt for choices which look better in the short-term, which means they aren’t often good at making the case for the long-term benefits of incineration-based waste-to-energy.

Reason 3: No one knows enough about garbage

While 66% of Canadians believe that protecting the environment is important, even at the risk of stifling economic growth, they, like the citizens in many other developed countries, are still generating 2.7kg of waste per capita every single day.

And far too many people still think that recycling is going to solve the problem, even though recycling only addresses a small fraction of the waste generated.

Why? Because those of us who know better – those of us in the thermal conversion industry, particularly – aren’t making the case very well. We see the media running stories that focus on community protests against a proposed waste-to-energy facility and don’t speak up to explain that ‘incineration’ doesn’t mean uncontrolled burning. We don’t invest in lobbying politicians to help them make the case for thermal conversion to their constituents. We don’t invest in marketing and PR efforts to help the public understand that modern incineration is much more environmentally sustainable than they realize. And we often resist partnering with other thermal conversion companies to drive the industry forward because we worry about getting or maintaining a competitive advantage.

So what do we do?

It’s time for those of us in the thermal conversion and waste-to-energy industries to get more vocal about what we do – and why it’s so smart. It’s time to stop assuming that no one wants to talk about garbage and start talking about how waste-to-energy is not just interesting but effective, and how it’s giving us a real opportunity to improve our communities and the planet. It’s time to stop being embarrassed by talking about our careers in ‘garbage’ and start evangelizing about cleantech.

Because when people know more, they start thinking like my Facebook friend: “This is awesome! Why aren’t we doing that here?”


About the Author

Sarah Welstead is the Marketing Director at Eco Waste Solutions, a Canadian-based company that is a leading supplier of modular thermal treatment and waste-to-energy technology. Eco Waste Solutions has more than 80 WTE installations in 18 countries.

Pyrowave to team up with Loblaws to further develop its plastics microwave recycling technology

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Pyrowave, a Quebec-based plastics microwave recycling start-up, was recently announced as one of three winners in the Community of Leaders Innovating for Corporations (C.L.I.C.) challenge. As a winner, the company will be mentored by Galen Weston, Executive Chairman of
the Loblaw grocery chain.

Pyrowave converts plastic waste into chemical products used to make virgin-like (monomers) plastics, in order to make 100% polystyrene recycling possible, be it foam or rigid.

The C.L.I.C. Challenge matches CEOs from leading companies with pioneering Canadian-based start-ups that offer promising technological solutions in their industries. This first edition of the Challenge was open to mature start-ups, in the process of becoming series A or in a later stage of development, and focused on key industrial sectors that form the backbone of the country’s economy: agri-food, advanced manufacturing and extractive resources.

To further accelerate their development, Pyrowave has been invited to the Business Council of Canada’s members meeting in January. It will be a unique opportunity for them to pitch their innovative solution to the leaders of over 100 of Canada’s largest corporations.

The second edition of the C.L.I.C. Challenge is already under way with a new cohort of CEOs that will expand the Community of Leaders for Innovating Corporations, and details will be revealed early 2020 at clicchallenge.ca.

Pyrowave’s patented microwave catalytic depolymerization System

Waste to Energy Market Forecast 2019-2029

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Visiongain, a business intelligence provider based in London, UK, recently published a report entitled Waste to Energy Market Forecast 2019-2029.   In the report, the global waste-to-energy (WtE) market is forecast to experience capital expenditure of $16.4 billion in 2019.

The interest in WtE is growing as an option for sustainable waste management practices. Population and waste growth will be major drivers for the development of WtE technology, especially in developing countries. During the last several years, increased waste generation and narrowed prospects for landfill have brought strong growth prospects for the WtE industry.

Not only is the world population growing, but it is also becoming increasingly more urban. This leads to greater levels of waste being generated globally, in more concentrated levels and in close proximity to large urban areas. These issues are focusing more attention on waste management frameworks, with increased interest in alternatives to landfill. As a result, municipalities worldwide are considering the functionality of WtE plants to help deal with mounting waste being generated.

Today, waste-to-energy projects based on combustion technologies are highly efficient power plants that utilize solid waste as their fuel as opposed to oil, coal or natural gas. Far better than burning up energy to search, recover, process and convey the fuel from some distant source, waste-to-energy technology finds worth in what others consider garbage.

With reference to this report, waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are considered as plants using municipal solid waste (MSW) as a primary fuel source for energy production. This includes direct combustion and advanced thermal, but not biological processes. The report covers the CAPEX spending of new and upgraded WtE plants globally. The report also forecasts MSW-processing capacity for global, regional and national markets from 2019-2029.

The report will answer questions such as:
• What are the prospects for the overall waste-to-energy industry?
• Where are the major investments occurring?
• Who are the key players in the waste-to-energy industry?
• What are the market dynamics underpinning the sector?
• How consolidated is the sector amongst the large industry players?

The report provides detailed profiles and analysis of 13 leading companies operating within the waste-to-energy market including Covanta, Suez Environment, Veolia Environmental, Wheelabrator, and others.

Covanta WTE Facility, Region of Durham, Ontario

The study reveals where companies are investing in waste-to-energy and how much waste-processing capacity from WtE is expected. Analysis of three regional markets, national markets plus analysis of many more countries is included in the report. There is a section that forecasts the Canadian Waste-to-Energy market.

The independent 270-page report includes 237 tables and figures examining the waste-to-energy market space. It also includes municipal waste processing capacity forecasts from 2019 to 2029.